AskDefine | Define calender

Dictionary Definition

calender n : a machine that smoothes or glazes paper or cloth by pressing it between plates or passing it through rollers v : press between rollers or plates so as to smooth, glaze, or thin into sheets; "calender paper"

User Contributed Dictionary

English

Pronunciation

  • (RP): /ˈkæləndə/, /"k

Extensive Definition

This article is about a device for smoothing paper. For the method of timekeeping, see calendar. A calender (or kalandar) is also an order of dervishes in Turkey and Persia.
The calender is a series of hard pressure rollers, at the end of a papermaking process (on-line) or separate from it (off-line), which is also called supercalender. The purpose of a calender is to smooth out the paper for enabling printing and writing on it, and to increase the gloss on the paper surface. It is understood to be a process of using pressure for embossing a smooth surface on the still rough paper surface.
The word “calender” itself is a derivation of the word cylindrus, the Latin word for “cylinder”.
Formerly, the paper sheets were worked on with a polished hammer or pressed between polished metal sheets in a press. With the continuously operating paper machine it became a process of rolling the paper web. The nip pressure can be reduced by heating the rolls and/or moistening the paper surface. This helps to keep the bulk and the stiffness of the paper web which is beneficial for its further use.
Modern calenders have hard and heated rolls made from chilled cast iron or — in a few cases — steel, and rolls with “soft” covers of polymeric composites. Thus the working nip becomes wider and the specific pressure on the paper more even.

Other materials

Calenders can also be applied to materials other than paper in which a smooth, flat surface is desirable, such as cotton, many linens and silks, and various man-made fabrics and polymers - mostly for vinyl and ABS polymer sheets but also, to a lesser extent, to HDPE, Polypropylene , and Polystyrene.
calender in Old English (ca. 450-1100): Gerīmbōc
calender in Arabic: تقويم
calender in Asturian: Repertoriu
calender in Belarusian: Каляндар
calender in Belarusian (Tarashkevitsa): Каляндар
calender in Bulgarian: Календар
calender in Bengali: পঞ্জিকা
calender in Catalan: Calendari
calender in Czech: Kalendář
calender in Welsh: Calendr
calender in Danish: Kalender
calender in German: Kalander
calender in Dimli: Teqwim
calender in Modern Greek (1453-): Ημερολόγιο
calender in Emiliano-Romagnolo: Calander
calender in Esperanto: Kalendaro
calender in Spanish: Calendario
calender in Estonian: Kalender
calender in Basque: Egutegi
calender in Persian: گاهشماری در ایران باستان
calender in Finnish: Kalenteri
calender in Võro: Kallendri
calender in French: Calendrier
calender in Friulian: Calendari
calender in Western Frisian: Kalinder
calender in Galician: Calendario
calender in Hebrew: לוח שנה
calender in Hindi: पंचांग
calender in Hungarian: Naptár
calender in Interlingua (International Auxiliary Language Association): Calendario
calender in Indonesian: Kalender
calender in Iloko: Calendario
calender in Ido: Kalendario
calender in Icelandic: Dagatal
calender in Italian: Calendario
calender in Japanese: 暦
calender in Javanese: Kalendher
calender in Georgian: კალენდარი
calender in Kannada: ಪಂಚಾಂಗ
calender in Korean: 역법
calender in Kurdish: Salname
calender in Latin: Calendarium
calender in Lingala: Manáka
calender in Lithuanian: Kalendorius
calender in Maori: Maramataka
calender in Malay (macrolanguage): Takwim
calender in Newari: पात्रो
calender in Dutch: Kalender
calender in Norwegian Nynorsk: Kalender
calender in Norwegian: Kalender
calender in Polish: Kalander
calender in Portuguese: Calendário
calender in Quechua: Kalindaryu
calender in Russian: Календарь
calender in Sicilian: Calannariu
calender in Serbo-Croatian: Kalendar
calender in Simple English: Calendar
calender in Slovak: Kalendár
calender in Slovenian: Koledar
calender in Somali: Kalandar
calender in Serbian: Календар
calender in Sundanese: Kalénder
calender in Swedish: Kalender
calender in Swahili (macrolanguage): Kalenda
calender in Telugu: కేలండర్
calender in Thai: ปฏิทิน
calender in Tagalog: Kalendaryo
calender in Turkish: Takvim
calender in Tatar: Täqwim
calender in Ukrainian: Календар
calender in Urdu: تقویم
calender in Vietnamese: Lịch
calender in Wolof: Arminaat
calender in Yiddish: קאלענדאר
calender in Chinese: 历法
calender in Min Nan: Le̍k-hoat
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